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TiO2 Photocatalytic Oxidation Technology

Water is life ! It is a precondition for human, animal and plant life as well as an indispensable resource for the economy. Water also plays a fundamental role in the climate regulation cycle.

Protection of water resources, of fresh and salt water ecosystems and of the water we drink and bathe in is therefore one of the cornerstones of environmental protection in Europe. The stakes are high and the issues transcend national boundaries and concerted action at all levels is necessary to ensure an effective protection system”

Photocatalysis Oxidation is a suitable alternative to conventional water treatment processes.

The principle of photocatalysis is very simple: A catalyst harnesses the radiation from UV, Visible Light or standard Fluorescent light and uses that energy to break down different substances. Photocatalysis action can be used to break down a wide variety of organic materials, crude oil, dyes, estrogens, organic acids,  pesticides and inorganic molecules such as nitrous oxides (NOx) and utilised in combination with precipitation or filtration, can also remove metals (such as mercury).

Solas Shield PCO decomposes organic pollutants in water. Decomposition products are nontoxic compounds such as carbon dioxide, water and nitrates. The process is known as Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO). The process works well in daylight or supplemented with fluorescent light.  UV lamps can sometimes be used for full optimisation.

Excitation of TiO2 by light and degradation are integrated into one unit operation called photocatalytic degradation.
Particles of TiO
2 are embedded onto a plate surface and water is run over the treated surface until  the required standard has been attained. As the TiO2 Ultra-Thin-Film forms part of the substrate, it is not consumed in the process and continues to work without the need for any recycling  (as current methods) after filtering.



A continuous degradation process is a simple setup:

Solas Shield PCO causes organic matter such as chlorine compounds, tetrachloroethylene, trihalomethane and other harmful substances to be broken down by the power of light. Sewage treatment is used as a means to remove the toxic and harmful substances, suspended solids, silt, bacteria, viruses, ill-smelling, pigment and other pollutants from water. Traditional sewage treatment method has the following disadvantages: - large area, high-investment, fast electric consumption, low efficiency, high cost and secondary pollution.

The sewage treatment industry has been unable to get a satisfactory solution. However, with the developmentand application of TiO2 Photocatalytic Oxidation  nano-technology we have now solved this problem.

Solas Shield can completely decompose organic and inorganic toxic pollutants under the influence of sunlight and or ultraviolet light. Through nano-particles photocatalysis, the pollutants can be completely mineralised and oxidised into harmless CO2 and H2O, with no secondary pollution. Our main degradation results from paper mills, printworks, alcohol and chemical plants, biological drugs company and pesticide factory have shown that the COD decomposition rate is more than 90% within one hour. It achieves the national sewage discharge standards, that is, COD being less than 100.


Nano-technology has also shown great power in the degradation of nitrogen and oxygen species and the organics in sewage treatment. NanoYo TiO
2 for sewage treatment is not only residue-free, wide sterilisation, corrosion-free, non-stimulating, non-toxic and not affected by organics, hard or soft water, PH, temperature and so on, but also in the long-term.

Excellent decentralised nature.

Large specific surface area

High photocatalytic efficiency.

Small product size.

Thorough decomposition of organics .

Chemical Free Water Treatment


Solas Shield PCO causes detrimental damage to organic matter such as post disinfection organic chlorine compounds against many  harmful substances...such as Arsenic.


Solas Shield PCO can be used for non-chemical treatment of water (without chlorine) in swimming pools and water features - for simple non-chemical (physical) decontamination of water containing micro-organisms and chemical contaminates - and without using complicated machinery. - Just surface area and light required.




Solas Shield particles attached to a "Flat-Bed" or a Clear Piping Array surfaces in the presence of light, and covered with a water flow, will produced hydroxyl radicals on their surfaces.

These radicals have exceptionally high oxidation potential as noted below...


Oxidation Potential


Hydroxyl Radical 2.8


Ozone 2.1


Permanganate 1.7


Chlorine 1.4


TiO2 has been used for many decades in commercial available products, for example, as pigment in white paint, whitener in toothpaste or as UV absorber in sunscreens. The use of titanium dioxide ( nano-TiO2) in municipal sewage treatment represents a low-cost alternative to the billion pound secondary treatment process.  nano-TiO2, could be used to purify wastewater. In the presence of sunlight,  nano-TiO2 has been shown to accelerate the natural decomposition of low-level organic compounds in aqueous solutions to carbon dioxide and water. The purpose of secondary treatment is the same -- to remove organic compounds. In contrast to conventional treatment which relies on the use of potentially dangerous E. coli and chemical disinfectant with sodium hypochlorite and chlorine, titanium dioxide is safe to the point of being edible. It is a commonly used food additive.

If TiO2  PCO were  used in municipal wastewater  plants, secondary treatment could be eliminated, resulting in billions of pounds in savings and improved effluent quality.

The disinfection agents commonly used both in drinking water and wastewater treatment plants are chlorine and related compounds, such as chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium, with chlorine being by far the most widely used. However, in the early 1970s, it was found that chlorine reacts with the natural organic matter present in water and wastewater to produce various undesirable chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBPs). Of the wide variety of chlorinated DBPs formed, trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids are of a primary concern since many of them have been found to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic.

 In addition, chlorination of water has been associated with taste and odour problems caused not only by chlorine itself but also from odorous disinfection by-products. Moreover, wastewater disinfection by chlorine requires subsequent de-chlorination of the treated effluent to minimize the potential toxic effects of low level chlorine residuals on aquatic organisms as well as to prevent the formation of DBPs in the receiving water bodies.
Since nanoYo™-TiO
2 would have already removed more suspended matter and organic waste than required for local standards, secondary treatment could be completely bypassed, saving time, enhancing efficiency, and reducing the need for certain steps, such as disinfecting chlorination, which renders the water undrinkable.

Our novel treatment could save millions of pounds, eliminating the need and associated cost of the construction, operation, and maintenance of secondary treatment plants. The obvious savings would not be compromised by an environmental debt. Nano-TiO2 exceeds government standards, removing even low-level organic carcinogens not eliminated under current processes. Wastewater effluent would be of significantly higher quality and thousands of communities across the  world would be able to enjoy pristine natural waters without spending huge amounts of revenue on treatment structures.


Photocatalytic degradation is based on ability of TiO2 particles to perform on their surfaces for oxidation and reduction. The basic precondition is that TiO2 particles have adequate crystallographic form and they must be excited by a suitable light source. Our TiO2 particles have diameters of 2-3nm...well below one micron.

TiO2 particles on a "Flat-Bed" surface covered with a water flow will have hydroxyl radicals on their surfaces. These radicals have exceptionally high oxidation potential:

Oxidation Potential

Hydroxyl Radical 2.8

Ozone 2.1

Permanganate 1.7

Chlorine 1.4

A continuous degradation flowsheet is simple:

Excitation of TiO2 by light and degradation are integrated into one unit operation called photocatalytic Degradation.
Particles of TiO
2 are embedded onto a plate surface and water is run over the treated surface until  the required standard has been attained. As the TiO2 Ultra-Thin-Film forms part of the substrate, it is not consumed in the process and continues to work without the need for any recycling  (as current methods) after filtering.

The following example of chlorinated hydrocarbons indicate that if the pollutant are suitable for oxidation then the process is efficient

Concentrations (mg/L)

Input                       Output

DCM 11                     0.01

TCM 6                       0.2

PCE 0.15                   0.0008

TCE 0.04                   0.0002

cis-12-DCE 0.2           0.0025


The spectrum of pollutants suitable for TiO2 oxidisation is relatively broad. As for  example:


Alcohols benzyl, tert-butyl, ethanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol,isopropanol, methanol, propenediol


Aldehydes acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, formaldehyde, glyoxal, isobutyraldehyde, trichloroacetaldehyde


Aromatics benzene; chlorobenzene, chlorophenol, creosote, dichlorophenol, hydroquinone, p-nitrophenol, phenol, toluene, trichlorophenol, xylene, trinitrotoluene

Amines aniline, cyclic amines, diethylamine, dimethylformamide, EDTA, propanediamine, n-propylamine

Dyes Anthraquinone, diazo, monoazo


Ethers Tetrahydrofuran


Ketones Dihydroxyacetone, methyl ethyl ketone


Aromatic Hydrocarbons benzene , toluene, naphtalene)


Halogenated compounds CH2Cl2, CHBr3,TCE, 1,2-dibromo-3-chlorpropane, monochlorbenzene, dichlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl


Hydroxylated compounds methanol, propanol, phenol, propylphenol, cresols, bisphenol A, 4,4´-ethylidenebisphenol, 4,4´-methylenebisphenol

Ethers methoxyphenols, meta and para substituted methoxybenzenes,- NH2, NO2,- F,- Cl


Sulphur- containing compounds 2-methylthiophene, 3-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid, 2,5-anilinedisulfonic acid, o-phenolsulfonic acid, sulfosalicylic acid, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole


Nitrogen-containing compounds CH3CN, C2H5NH2, (C2H3)2NH2, aniline, nitrobenzene, phenyltetrazole

Halogen and nitrogen – containing compounds cetylpyridinium chloride, C21H38NCl


S-N containing componds phenylmercaptotetrazole, mercaptotetrazole


Aldehydes, ketones formaldehyde, acetophenone, salicylaldehyde, methylsalicyl ketone

Amide benzamide

Esters K hydrogen phtalate, dimethyl phtalate, diethyl phtalate, di-n-butyl phtalate


Complexed cyanides, Chlorinated solvents, Pesticides, Halogenated micropollutants, THM precursors, tri- and Tetrachloroethylene, Humic substances, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, atrazine, simazine, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), N-nitroso-dimethylamine (NDMA), endocrine disruptors